People who receive money from Ponzi schemes usually have to return the money if the Ponzi organizer filed bankruptcy. The bankruptcy trustee typically pursues recipients of Ponzi profits as transferees of fraudulent transfers made by the Ponzi organizer. What happens when the Ponzi organizer donates part of Ponzi profits to a charity? Continue reading
Sometimes a creditor with a cause of action against a corporation will try to “pierce the veil” of the corporation to hold liable the owners of the company if the creditor believes the owners have significant assets. There is a different concept called “reverse piercing” when a creditor will try to attack a corporation and its assets to satisfy a claim initially brought against the individual owners. Continue reading
People who receive distributions of money from Ponzi schemes usually are expected to return the money to a trustee who takes over the operation when the Ponzi organizer files bankruptcy. The trustee usually attempts to “claw back” money distributed to the investors, especially money representing winnings or profits. This recent Florida bankruptcy case produced a slightly different result for a Ponzi investor. Continue reading
Within two weeks of filing Chapter 7 bankruptcy these debtors took $12,000 of non-exempt cash from an insurance policy and used the money to fund exempt IRAs. The trustee objected that the infusion of cash into the IRAs on the eve of bankruptcy was a fraudulent conversion of non-exempt assets to exempt assets. Continue reading
One of the defenses to a fraudulent transfer action is that the debtor’s transfer in question was for “reasonably equivalent value.” The general rule is that a transfer to repay a loan is a transfer for value because the transferor receives a deduction in the principal and interest owed on the debt. Continue reading
Bankruptcy debtors use their $4,000 wildcard exemptions most often to protect cars. The debtor can apply the wildcard only to cars in the debtor’s name. For example, if a married couple is considering Chapter 7 bankruptcy and both of the couple’s cars are titled in the husband’s name the wife cannot apply her $4,000 wildcard exemption to either of the cars because she owns no car.
There are so many reasons to stay away from bankruptcy- here is one more. Continue reading